The expression levels of several chondrogenesis\related markers, including Col2A1, Sox9 and Aggrecan, were evaluated by real\time PCR (qPCR), and the results showed that the mRNA expression of these genes was higher in the S\ASC treatment group than in the OA and V\ASC treatment groups (Fig.?2C). than that of S\ASCs, but S\ASCs had the greater adipogenic capacity than V\ASCs. In addition, the infracted cartilage treated with S\ASCs showed significantly greater improvement than cartilage treated with PBS or V\ASCs. Moreover, S\ASCs showed better chondrogenic potential and immunosuppression such as proliferation and differentiation potentials 16. ASCs derived from SC fat easily differentiate into mature adipocytes, whereas VS derived from ASCs differentiate poorly in Rabbit Polyclonal to AurB/C response to a standard induction cocktail 17. Many studies have suggested that S\ASCs could be a stem cell source for treating knee OA 18, 19. However, recently, VS adipose tissue has drawn a great deal of attention with regard to its differences from SC adipose tissue. In 2009 2009, Baglioni and colleagues 20 successfully isolated a population of adult stem cells from the omental adipose tissue of human patients. Subsequently, several studies have shown that S\ASCs and visceral ASCs (V\ASCs) have differences in gene expression, adiponectin release and insulin signalling 20, 21, 22. However, researchers found that both SC and VS adipose tissues are equally effective cell sources for the treatment of heart failure 23. These observations led us to investigate whether S\ASCs and V\ASCs are equally effective in improving OA. Mouse and human SC and VS adipose tissue were excised for isolation of ASCs. Morphology, proliferation, surface markers and adipocyte differentiation of S\ASCs and V\ASCs were analysed. A surgically induced rat model of OA was established, and 4?weeks after the operation, S\ASCs, V\ASCs and PBS, control were SB-742457 injected into the articular cavity. Histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene expression analyses were performed 6?weeks after ASC injection. In addition, the ability of ASCs to differentiate into chondrocytes was assessed and the immunosuppressive activity of ASCs was evaluated by co\culturing with macrophages. The proliferation of V\ASCs was significantly greater than that of S\ASCs, but S\ASCs had the greater adipogenic capacity than V\ASCs. In addition, infarcted cartilage treated with S\ASCs had significantly greater improvement than cartilage treated with PBS or V\ASCs. Moreover, S\ASCs showed better chondrogenic potential and immunosuppression values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Characteristics of ASCs from SC and VS adipose tissue Following initial isolation and expansion, homogeneous ASCs growing in a monolayer with a spindle\shaped morphology were observed after culture for 2?days. ASCs isolated from both SC and VS adipose tissue exhibited typical fibroblast\like spindle morphology (Fig.?1A). In addition, both cell types displayed positive staining for the mesenchymal surface marker CD34; however, the expression of CD34 in V\ASCs was higher than that in S\ASCs (Fig.?1B). This suggests that the two types of ASCs share common morphological, but different biological properties. The two types of ASCs presented with strong proliferation capacity < 0.05, **< 0.01. Intra\articular injection of S\ASCs inhibit OA progression Studies have shown that the intra\articular injection of autologous ASCs from SC adipose tissue or infrapatellar fat into the osteoarthritic knee improved function and pain of the knee joint in humans 14, 18, 19, suggesting that ASCs from different regions of the body may all have cartilage repair functions. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of S\ASCs and V\ASCs, we administered intra\articular injections of S\ASCs and V\ASCs into a surgically induced OA rat model to compare their effects. Gross morphology demonstrated alleviated osteophyte and fibrous tissue formation in the tibia cartilage upon S\ASC treatment, compared to treatment with PBS or V\ASCs (Fig.?2A). Histological analysis of control rats showed fibrotic tissue and damaged cartilage SB-742457 surface, whereas rats treated with S\ASCs had a smooth cartilage surface as well as distribution of lacunae and chondrocytes. Additionally, immunostaining of Acan and Collagen type\II alpha (Col2A1) showed enhanced expression in the cartilage upon S\ASC treatment (Fig.?2B). The expression levels of several chondrogenesis\related markers, including Col2A1, Sox9 and Aggrecan, were evaluated by SB-742457 real\time PCR (qPCR), and the results showed that the mRNA expression of these genes was higher in the S\ASC treatment group than in the OA and V\ASC treatment groups (Fig.?2C). Taken together, these data demonstrate that compared to V\ASCs, S\ASC treatment delayed cartilage SB-742457 degradation in the rat model of OA. Open in a separate window Figure 2 Effects of.