[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 103. blood coagulation factors that Factors Xa and FIIa are able to cleave it, stimulating enhanced viral entry into susceptible cells.[ 39 ] The implications of this similarity for direct intervention by SARS\CoV\2 proteins or COVID\19\associated bacterial antigens by Factors Xa and FIIa Mouse monoclonal to NFKB1 have not yet been investigated and may extend to other blood protein mimics. The purpose of this paper is usually to explore the range of similarities between human blood protein antigens and SARS\CoV\2 compared with other respiratory viruses such as influenza and adenoviruses, as well as the range of similarities between human blood proteins and bacteria highly associated with severe COVID\19 such as (as well as atypical forms)values (https://www.easycalculation.com/statistics/bonferroni\correction\calculator.php). To satisfy = 0.05 after a Bonferroni correction, the uncorrected value had to be Duocarmycin A 0.0024 (T 3.75) and to satisfy = 0.01, the uncorrected value had to be 0.0005. RESULTS SARS\CoV\2 mimicry of human blood proteins Table?1 displays the LALIGN results comparing each viral protein with the human blood\related proteins. One hundred and sixty\nine matches that satisfied the criteria laid out in the Methods (briefly, a WE score over 50, E less than 1.0, and at least six amino acid identities in a sequence of 10) were found between SARS\CoV\2 proteins and the human blood and serum proteins. The SARS\CoV\2 total compared with an average of 26 matches for poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus B3, hepatitis A computer virus, and rhinovirus C C a six point five\fold difference C and an average of about 66 matches for the adenovirus 5 and Influenza computer virus H1N1 (Wilson) pair C a three\fold difference. In short, SARS\CoV\2 incorporates many times the number of human blood mimics than any other respiratory computer virus. Two SARS\CoV\2 proteins accounted for the majority of these matches: the replicase 1a (“type”:”entrez-protein”,”attrs”:”text”:”P0DTC1″,”term_id”:”1835922011″,”term_text”:”P0DTC1″P0DTC1) and spike protein (“type”:”entrez-protein”,”attrs”:”text”:”P0DTC2″,”term_id”:”1835922048″,”term_text”:”P0DTC2″P0DTC2); these matches occurred more than six occasions as frequently as in any of the control viruses. The spike protein (“type”:”entrez-protein”,”attrs”:”text”:”P0DTC2″,”term_id”:”1835922048″,”term_text”:”P0DTC2″P0DTC2) displays as many similarities to human blood proteins as does the entire proteome of the average computer virus while replicase 1a exhibits as many similarities as the entire proteome of adenovirus 5 and influenza computer virus H1N1. The statistical significance of differences in incidence of human blood protein in Table?1 was evaluated using a paired = 1.6653, = 0.12Hepatitis A = 0.2215, = 0.83 = 0.9787, = 0.35Rhinovirus C = 2.9245, = 0.01 = 0.3801, = 0.71 = 2.0903, = 0.06Influenza H1N1 = 2.6687, = 0.02 = 1.3756, = 0.19 = 2.2191, = 0.05 = 1.1825, = 0.26Adenovirus 5 = 2.0368, = 0.050 = 1.9858, = 0.056 = 2.0872, = 0.045 = 1.5385, = 0.13 = 0.1201, = 0.91Virus Average = 3.8000, = 0.002 = 0.0957, = 0.93 = 1.7165, = 0.11 = 0.8062, = 0.43 = 1.8953, P = 0.08 Duocarmycin A = 1.6388, = 0.11SARS\CoV\2 = 8.9314, 0.0001 = 6.7729, 0.0001 = 7.7645, 0.0001 = 7.2111, 0.0001 = 6.0688, 0.0001 = 2.4551, = 0.027 = 7.8312, 0.0001 Open in a separate window To satisfy = 0.05 after a Bonferroni correction for the 28 pairwise comparisons made in this Table, the value must be 0.002; to satisfy = 0.01, the corrected value must be 0.0005. Of the control comparisons, only polio as compared with the computer virus common is usually statistically significant after correction. All SARS\CoV\2 comparisons with other viruses and the computer virus average are highly statistically significant by satisfying a Bonferroni\corrected P value of 0.002 ( 3.75). Significant results are highlighted in strong. Examples of the SARS\CoV\2 protein\human protein matches are provided in Physique?1, which includes Duocarmycin A additional statistical steps (Waterman\Eggert or WE scores as well as E values). WE scores above 50 and E values below 1.0 are generally considered to be statistically significant when the E value for the search has been set at 1000, as it was here. The largest group of similarities (Table?1) involves similarities between the SARS\CoV\2 Replicase 1a or spike protein and platelet phosphodiesterases or Rh blood group proteins. Additional matches above the statistical computer virus average occur between these two SARS\CoV\2 proteins and complement C3, C4, and C5 and prothrombin. The overall SARS\CoV\2 proteome exhibits significantly increased (three\fold or more) similarities to serum albumin, clotting Duocarmycin A factors, platelet phosphodiesterases, Rh blood group proteins, prothrombin, VWF, Factor IX,.